Thursday, 10 August 2017
This review has been submitted to the Canadian Army Journal.
Author: Mikhail Filippenkov
Photos/ Maps: 18/8
In the period following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the archives of the former Soviet military were made available for historians to access when researching books relating to the Second World War. Unfortunately that window has now been significantly restricted again, limiting the ability of authors to provide a balanced accounting of events on the Eastern Front; this challenge was exacerbated by the systematic destruction of Soviet Unit records relating to operations where the Soviet Union suffered significant reversals. Operation Typhoon, the German drive for Moscow in October, 1941, falls into this category.
This work, which focusses upon the operational and tactical events running from 25 September to 12 October during which the pocket at Viaz’ma was closed, primarily deals with the Northern arm of this drive led by the Panzergruppe 3. The author traces the events leading to the capture of the town of Sychevka, a point north of Viaz’ma and critical to opening the road to Moscow. The author, a Russian national, does his best to provide a balance in the narrative between the Soviet forces of Konev’s Western Front and the German forces; unfortunately he is precluded from doing so due to the fact that all archives relating to Stavka (Soviet high command) and Front documents are still sealed. Thus, while he is able to draw some information from other sources, the book is mainly told from the German perspective.
Nevertheless, the approach taken by the author of a daily recitation of events does highlight some very interesting points on both sides: the quality of German command and control is evident in their ability to maintain decision making momentum over the Russian leadership; the dramatic changes in temperature and its effect upon the operational capabilities of both sides (the author refers to weather and temperature at the beginning of each day – the first wet snow fell on 7 October and the temperature fell to -40 at night by 10 October); the inability of the Germans to logistically maintain their forces and the incredible burden that this shortfall placed upon the rear services and the luftwaffe. Throughout the book the author refers to German units running short of fuel and the conscious decision by the German high command to not issue winter kit at the beginning of Typhoon due to the delay it would cause to the start date. The author also draws attention to the more effective combined arms operations of the Germans and the Russian lack of effective air reconnaissance. Finally, he acknowledges the overall superiority of German leadership and equipment while concurrently recognizing the strengths of the Russian forces in defensive operations.
Helion has maintained its high standard of quality with the production value of this work. This book is a quick and interesting read but should be read in conjunction with other authors such as David Glantz, Lev Lopukhovsky “The Viaz'ma Catastrophe, 1941: The Red Army's Disastrous Stand Against Operation Typhoon” or Svetlana Gerasimova’s “The Rzhev Slaughterhouse”. I also found that the maps provided with the text did not provide much detail on the area’s in the narrative; a shortcoming when the book is broken into daily analysis. Nevertheless, an interesting and engaging read.
This review has been submitted to Airforce Magazine.
Author: Duncan Grinnell-Milne
Publisher: Pen and Sword
Photos/ Maps: 4/0
Autobiographies of the early days of the Royal Flying Corps (later to be known as the Royal Air Force) never cease to impress. Perhaps it is the sense of wonder and élan with which these early pilots and observers recount their adventures; and that was what it was for many of these young gentlemen, an adventure. Wind in the Wire is the author’s story of his time in the RFC and his experiences as one of the early, and late, pilots of the First World War.
The first thing that strikes the reader is the prose with which the author writes. Despite not being a professional writer, he is able to turn a phrase in such a way as to convey to the reader a clear sense of the image and the humanity behind the description. His humility, joy, fears, frustrations and doubts are expressed simply and honestly, without pretense or embellishment. He is as forthright about his insecurities at learning to fly and joining an operational squadron as he is about his growing confidence and aggression in the air.
This is a book solely about his flying period; from when he reports for pilot training from his Regiment in July, 1915 to his last flight of the war in 1919. The narrative may be divided into three distinct parts: his training, his first operational squadron and being captured and finally his escape and rejoining 56 Squadron for the last months of the war. Each section alone stands as a fascinating tale of growth and adventure; taken together they represent a life’s worth of experiences compacted into three and a half short years.
The first section relates the author’s experiences in learning to fly as well as his first Squadron in France. What stands out is the quality of leadership and, during this time of the war, the lack of knowledge relating to even basic flying. Skills such as spinning, formation, bombing and gunnery were all being learned ‘on the fly’ and even the more senior pilots did not know much more than the most junior.
The author does not dwell on the details of his incarceration period in any detail save that made numerous attempts at escape and that he turned down multiple offers by the Germans to have him transferred to neutral Holland where he would be precluded from further participation in the war but would not be held to the same degree of restriction as he was in Germany. It is very interesting to learn of the different approaches that many of the internee’s adopted as a result of their newfound circumstances and the options available such as transfer to a neutral country.
The period transitioning his escape and return to flying duty is of particular interest because it represents in fact a time capsule. During the two and a half years of his time as a POW, the entire spectrum of air combat had utterly changed. The doctrine, airframes, weapons and organizational structure of the RFC (and the Germans) was nothing like it was when he was captured. His description of endeavouring to get back into operational flying on the Western Front, his retraining and the “Rip van Winkle” effect of coming to grips with his new surroundings is gripping and absorbing. His treatment at 56 Squadron as somewhat of a carnival freak due to the fact that he was returning aircrew from a bygone era (escapees were never returned to combat roles at this time so he was doubly unique) is very interesting to follow. Even his description of the advent of bureaucracy within the RFC when compared to his first arrival in France in 1915 is both insightful, telling and humorous.
Perhaps the most poignant aspect of the book however, is the concluding pages as the war comes to an unexpected end. The author, being only 23 at this time, relates the deep sense of loss and dislocation as the Squadron and the War, representing familiarity, structure as well as profound comradeship, is systematically, and without fanfare, stripped down and disbanded. Although it is impossible to fully render the sense of isolation felt by the author and his peers (indeed if one has not experienced the intensity of war and its effect upon its combatants, mere words have difficulty translating it), G-M’s writing does convey to the reader the emotional turmoil as few books have.
Although this book relates the experiences of a war that was fought one hundred years ago, its significance reverberates even today. This book is a classic of airmanship and courage and should be read in conjunction with the likes of Cecil Lewis’ Sagittarius Rising, Arthur Gould Lee’s Open Cockpit and No Parachute as well as VM Yate’s Winged Victory. An outstanding work of literature and a must for any historian of the military arts.
Tuesday, 25 July 2017
Author: Gerald Seymour
History may be told by many different means: documentaries, historical treatise, papers and of course, historical fiction. Seymour’s novel falls into the latter category. It is considerably more difficult to effectively tell a story within the confines of a historical period because it is incumbent upon the author to not only weave an engaging tale but also to do so within the confines of the setting within which it takes place. Readers of historical fiction will be the first to point out inaccuracies and errors in the setting of the story – far more than within the storyline itself!
It is in this environment that Seymour has woven his tale of Northern Ireland during the time of the troubles. He immerses the reader into the deadly and unforgiving world of the Brits and the Provo’s: its politics, domestic toll, futility and tragedy. The storyline is deep, multi-faceted and reflects the complexities of the unfolding story through multiple lenses. The book has the intricacy of a Leon Uris tale and shares the poignancy of Trinity.
Author: Bill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard
Publisher: Henry Holt Books
This is the fourth book in the series written by the authors identifying controversial or sensationalist aspects about the deaths of their subjects; in this case Gen George S Patton. The book provides an overview of Patton’s drive through Western Europe and his clashes with many of his superiors and allies. It includes his efforts to try and have the war extended beyond the defeat of Germany into a clash with the Soviet Union.
That Patton was a dynamic, driven and controversial General is beyond doubt. That there was a conspiracy to have him killed for political reasons has not, in the opinion of this reviewer, been proven by this narrative. Indeed the portion relating to his death and the alleged plot takes up only the final few pages of the book. There are a number of books and authors that provide a much better analysis of Patton as a Commander and a General. This book, while providing a broad brush discussion of his achievements, did not provide any more than a shallow recitation of the Patton experience. It was also very suggestive of a USA bias regarding Patton’s competencies (suggesting for example that the only Axis General that was equal to Patton was Rommel – something that historians would take umbrage with when considering Manstein, Guderian, Balck, Raus or Manteuffel to name a few).
Friday, 21 July 2017
This review has been submitted to Sabretache Magazine
Title: The Last Punisher
Author: Kevin Lacz
Publisher: Threshold Books
The Last Punisher is the author’s account of his training and operational experience as a member of Seal Team Three during the Battle of Ramadi. This is not an operational analysis of the battle nor a discussion of the tactical methods used by Special Forces, more it is a memoire of the authors time with the SEALS, the impact that the men of his team had on him and his outlook as well as how he matured both as an operator as well as a man as a result of his experiences (both positive and negative). The book is a quick read and has the four key elements of special forces (specops) operations: team loyalty, elitism, aggression and plenty of dip.
A number of themes come out of the book, ones that reflect the unique nature of the specops environment:
1. A strong sense of team cohesion and loyalty. While there is definitely a pride in one’s country, the driving sense of supporting the men of your stick is one that permeates throughout the narrative;
2. The unique command relationship that exists within a specops environment. The role of officers, NCO’s and soldiers is not as defined as in conventional forces. This relaxing of the rules is supposed to be offset by the level of professionalism and training of the operators. One of the challenges however, rests in the rapid expansion of specops soldiers in the last ten years. This expansion naturally runs the risk of diluting the experience and professionalism that provides the foundation of the specops ethos;
3. The us/them approach to other members of the armed services adopted by the specops teams. In his book Lacz alludes to this when he discusses joint ops with conventional forces. It is always a challenge to remember that everyone plays a role and it is critical that there is an appreciation of what those roles bring to the mission;
4. The key role that specops soldiers play in training Iraqi soldiers and the difficulties associated with this. Lacz discusses this at some length and does acknowledge improvement and engagement by the indigenous forces with the passage of time;
5. The disdain with the structure and regulation of the conventional military. Again, this is a reflection of the elitism that permeates the specops culture. Balanced against performance and professionalism this may be managed but left unchecked it can lead to a sense of superiority that can easily undermine the cohesion of the larger military and serve as a negative example to line soldiers;
6. The sense of purpose, discipline and structure that the SEALS provided for Lacz. Certainly, this is not limited to specops soldiers and it is a truism that military service can focus the efforts of capable but drifting young men and women. Lacz mentions this repeatedly and with a profound sense of gratitude; and finally
7. Lacz writes of his ability to walk away at the end of his service period and not live a life focussed in the past. For many military members and specops soldiers, it is extremely difficult to leave the sense of comradery and purpose that reflects military life. Reintegrating into a civilian environment is challenging and unsettling for many whose bonds have been forged in combat.
There is no question that Lacz feels very strongly about his team mates, his country and the role that he played in the War on Terror. His book serves as a testament to both his team-mates and the opportunities that his country has provided him. It is also a recognition of the role that his family’s support provided him in his reintegration back into civilian life. The Last Punisher is an honest tribute his years as a SEAL and the impact that it has had on his life. Recommended.
Tuesday, 11 July 2017
This review has been submitted to Review in History.
Author: Andrew Lownie
ISBN: 978-1- 250-10099-3
Photos/ Maps: 60/0
Few spy scandals have rocked the Western World like the notorious Cambridge Spy Scandal of the 1950’s. This book focuses on perhaps the best known of this group: Guy Burgess, his life, education, personality, motivations and the heady academic and political cauldron of the 1930’s, 40’s and 50’s UK.
The first thing that strikes the reader about this book is the degree to which the privileged society that was Burgess’ social circle both protected and tolerated behaviour that would have been completely unacceptable elsewhere. Burgess and many of his peers were open and flagrant homosexuals which was not tolerated nor legal in the UK during this period. Lownie masterfully, traces the development of Burgess’s personality through his school years and evaluates those individuals and circumstances that heavily influenced his outlook. His evaluation of Burgess’ behaviours reveals an individual of contradictions; self-absorption paired with restless brilliance and a complete domination of the id, while, concurrently, displaying a high level of loyalty to his inner circle of friends.
The book is also a fascinating study of British society and the role of connections, schools and economic well-being in garnering position and influence. Thus it was that, despite numerous questionable social traits and work results, Burgess’s connections and the loyalty of his school and work alumni to ‘one of their own’ enabled him access to the highest levels of foreign office employment and, by extension, correspondence. It was beyond the pale that anyone with breeding would betray the club. Thus it was that he was protected and shielded regardless of what became a pattern of increasingly erratic and questionable behaviour. Indeed, such was the level of institutional blindness amongst the British Foreign Office that he was actually posted to the US embassy where, although not provided a meaningful job (he was too much of a loose cannon for that) he still retained access to the highest levels of sensitive official papers and correspondence.
Another intriguing aspect to Lownie’s study is the level of loyalty that Burgess and his closest confidants held for each other. This allegiance transcended national affiliations and their mutual support and views served to strengthen their desire to undermine the strength of the corrupt West. Interestingly, while their efforts focused on the passage of information to the Soviets, for Burgess, this loyalty did not extend to an acceptance of the greatness of the Soviet Union, but a belief that British communism would prove superior to the Russian.
Burgess continued to be a study of contrasts throughout his life. Thus it was that there are continued references to his slovenly appearance and lack of personal hygiene amongst his friends and co-workers, while, concurrently, his insistence at wearing an Old Etonian tie at all times. It would appear from Lownie’s evaluation that Burgess was a deeply troubled personality, continuously seeking the next thrill while studiously avoiding the responsibilities of maturity and age. He constantly sought to be the centre of attention yet engaged in self-destructive and self-absorbed conduct. His drinking was legendary as was his flamboyant and reckless behaviour and yet he yearned for the company of others all the while alienating them with his conduct.
As Lownie describes, literally thousands of cables and messages were passed over to the Soviets during Burgess’s lifetime; so many that they were too numerous to decipher in total. Such was the flow of information that the Soviets suspected Burgess of being a double agent as they could not believe that the quantity and quality of the information that he was providing could be done without the knowledge of the British counter-intelligence people.
Monday, 10 July 2017
Title: Allies Are a Tiresome Lot: The British Army in Italy in the First World War
Author: John Dillon
Photos/ Maps: 15/4
As part of their Wolverhampton Military Studies program, Helion has published this interesting study of the experiences and undertakings of the British Army deployed to Italy in support of the Italian Front. Dillon has provided a comprehensive overview of the unique challenges, social environs and environmental differences facing the British and how they adapted their doctrine and regulations accordingly.
The Italians were a late comer to the war and were not held in high regard by the British command; however, a number of setbacks had, by 1917 driven the Italian government to the brink of surrender. The Allies, specifically the British, under significant pressure on the Western front due to the war weariness of the French (having recently mutinied), the recent loss of Romania and the deteriorating situation in the East with Russia, could not afford to lose the Italians without incurring a substantial threat to the entire war effort. They therefore reluctantly agreed to pull badly needed troops from the Western Front to bolster the Italians.
The Italian Front for soldiers recently engaged in the horrors of the Western Front was, in many respects, a paradise. Combat was infrequent, distances to the enemy trenches were as far as over a kilometre in many cases, the weather was mild, the ground dry and the daily routine easy; boredom became as much a challenge as the enemy. These unique challenges form the basis of Dillon’s work. He divides his narrative into distinctive sections, each stand-alone and covering such areas as medical, crime and punishment, morale and working with the Italians. He also provides, at the outset, a synopsis of the Italian war effort both in terms of the fighting as well as the relations of the Italian Government with its Allies. He closes his book with the British/Italian engagement with the Austro-Hungarians during the final months of the war and the challenges associated with the tense post war regional relations and the need to bring the soldiers home.
As this is a relatively unknown aspect of the First World War Dillon’s work is significant in the light it sheds on the unique facets of this campaign. He writes with clarity and humour, relating conditions and situations not seen on other fronts. This is a serious work however, well researched and presented. He draws on a plethora of primary source material to provide not only the strategic perspective but also the soldier’s narrative, weaving in many firsthand accounts into his writing.
Monday, 3 July 2017
A History of the Mediterranean Air War 1940-1945 Vol 3 Tunisia and the End in Africa November 1942-May 1943 - Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello
This review has been submitted to The RCAF Journal
Author: Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello
Publisher: Grub Street
Photos/ Maps: 100’s/Area maps on inside covers
With this book the authors have completed the third in the Mediterranean Air War series tracing the details of the air war in the desert and its environs during World War Two. Covering the period from November 1942 until May 1943, this installment focuses upon the arrival of the United States, and the gradual but inexorable decline in the fortunes of the Axis powers as they become squeezed into a tightening ring centred upon Tunis. As with the other books in the series, this book is replete with a level of detail that will appeal to the researcher as well as a readability that will draw in the casual historian. It is interesting to note the increasing complexity of the war in Africa with the opening of new fronts and the arrival of new actors on the stage; specifically the USAAF and the US Navy. This fact is reinforced when one considers the length of the book compared with the short period of time that it covers (6 months).
The book commences with an operational overview of the situation facing the combatants as 1942 came to a close. Included in this narrative is the Order of Battle for the Allied and Axis air forces at this time. The authors also provide a solid baseline for the reader with an analysis of the Allied air plans for the operations in the eastern and western regions. The intent of the first portion of the book is to provide the reader with a big picture of the region, its challenges, the participants and the operational environment within which they operated. One of the strengths of the narrative is its ability to convey the detail and complexity of the environment while concurrently providing a real life perspective that both educates and entertains. One of the central tenants of the Allied plan was to catch the Axis forces in a pincer movement that would cut them off from a potential avenue of retreat through Tunisia. It is a testament to the professionalism and operational acumen of the Axis air forces that they were able to provide continuing support to the ground forces despite the lengthening odds against them.
The main body of the book covers the day by day activities throughout the region. This follows a standard format whereby an overall explanation of the significant events is followed by a ‘list’ of the losses and victories experienced by the various nations. The detail in this portion is phenomenal and reflects the degree of analysis and research that has gone into the development of this book. It is this type of detail that makes this work ideal for the researcher although, for the more casual, reader it can become a bit overwhelming. Nevertheless, the methodology conveys the intense nature of the combat environment even on days when operations were considered to be quiet. Where possible, the authors have included photographs of the individuals being discussed adding a degree of personality to the accounts.
The authors close with a series of narratives by pilots who participated in this theatre during the period of the book. They convey a very personal touch and outlook unavailable to a researching author by virtue of the individuals having ‘lived the adventure’. This short section adds significant depth to the descriptions provided earlier in the work and round out the book very nicely.
Grub Street has once again published a book of the highest quality. A relatively boutique publishing house, they have consistently impressed with the standards of their products both in terms of presentation and value. The knowledge and detail provided in Vol 3 of this series is truly amazing. This book is a must have for those wishing to fully appreciate the odds that faced the Axis powers in the closing months of the African Campaign and the dramatic changes that enabled the Allies to both gain and expand their dominance of the African airspace. A strongly recommended purchase.
Survivors of Stalingrad: Eyewitness Accounts from the Sixth Army, 1942-1943 - edited by Reinhold Busch
This review has been submitted to the British Army Review
Author: edited by Reinhold Busch
Photos/ Maps: 38/4
The Eastern Front campaign was fought by both sides with a ruthlessness and brutality seldom seen in what is recognized as a modern conflict. Perhaps by virtue of its scale, certain events and battles have come to be seen as ‘key’ and ‘turning points’. Names such as Kursk, Moscow, Leningrad and of course Stalingrad have become synonymous with callousness, endurance, heroism and loss. Such was the calamity of the Eastern Front campaign both physically and psychologically that it is difficult for the reader of today to fully appreciate the extent and nature of the struggle without the benefit of having experienced it. Many of the survivors of this conflict were reluctant to share their experiences outside of the closed circle of comrades with whom they shared this bitter cup. Busch, while undertaking research on the medical system of the Wehrmacht was able to come across a number of these survivors and to gather their experiences almost by accident. The stories draw forth a spectrum of emotions in the reader, made all the more poignant by what is not said.
The recollections are raw but not self-pitying or melancholic. There is a recognition of their good fortune at surviving but no glorification of the event. In many cases the stories are almost too matter of fact. Perhaps the passage of time has provided for a more nuanced perspective; with the shock and horror diminished but not forgotten. It is clear that the men writing these renditions do not see themselves a special, merely lucky to have survived. It is important to note that the recollections are not exclusively from those who escaped from the pocket but also those who survived not only the Battle itself, but also years of brutal imprisonment that followed.
The author provides an introduction and background about how the project came about and then the rest of the book is given over to the stories themselves. Each chapter is a standalone recollection by the writer. Thus the book may be read in stages without losing any of its flow or impact. It is both humbling and fascinating to read of the different experiences. Where possible, the author has provided a picture of the soldier thereby adding a ‘face to the name’. What is particularly noteworthy are the efforts many of these men made to rejoin their units inside the Stalingrad pocket despite being on leave or somehow outside of the ring. This dedication to duty and comrades underscores the level of unit cohesion and morale typical of the German army of the period.
This is a book that sheds light upon the best and worst of the human condition. It stands as testament to the baseness of mankind as well as the astonishing levels to which it may rise; both its greatest strength and its limitation. Busch’s book is disturbing and thought provoking and is a memorial to those who sacrificed for their country and their comrades.
This review has been submitted to The British Military History Journal.
Author: Douglas Fermer
Publisher: Pen and Sword
Photos/ Maps: 30/10
The Franco-Prussian War marked a historic shift in the dynamics of the European political and national stage; the decline of France and the rise of the German confederation. This was made all the more significant given the assumption by many of the predominance of French martial prowess and the relatively junior position of Germany. The results of the war left the French in political and military disarray and the Germans as the new masters of the profession of arms. Fermer’s book covers the events leading up to the commencement of the war and the proceedings up to the conclusion of the Battle of Sedan and the surrender of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.
While the book ultimately focusses upon the Battle of Sedan, the author has undertaken to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of not only the events but also the capabilities and political/military realities of the protagonists leading up to the conflict. This is critical as it speaks to the conditions that resulted in the unforeseen military cataclysm for France. The analysis undertaken by Fermer looks at not only the size and capabilities of the respective armies, but more importantly their respective doctrines and leadership.
France’s doctrine relating to combat was only part of the equation and, as Fermer so aptly discusses, it was the doctrine surrounding the processes relating to mobilization and logistics that proved to be the true Achilles Heel of the French. Their plans were unrealistic, unproven and based on capabilities that existed only on paper. Further exacerbating this shortcoming, the French political and military leadership chose to ignore the realities of French weakness and undertake their roles and responsibilities more as partisan political adversaries living in a delusional world of past glories rather than the real politique of 1870 Europe.
Fermer also casts a strong light on the nascent German Empire and its efforts to establish itself as a leading member within the European host of nations. While Fermer equitably identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the German approach, it is clear that the political and military leadership of Prussia (read Germany) was much better prepared and in tune than the French. They also had the benefit of much more recent combat experience with the Danish and Austrian wars where they were able undertake critical analysis of their plans and doctrine.
Having prepared the groundwork through this macro, pan-European approach, Fermer is able to focus on the immediate events leading up the outbreak of hostilities and the initial stages of the war. His eye is critical and unrelenting as he relates the activities of the individual armies and commanders. As he discusses, the French were not without opportunity and courage but they were immediately caught behind the ‘power curve’ and surrendered the initiative to the Germans. The Germans, for their part, maintained a clear operational focus that allowed their armies to operate independently but in concert with one another. The French command and support structure rapidly collapsed under the rapidly changing operational and tactical environment and they found themselves operating reactively instead of proactively with little or no central control.
The narrative reaches its apogee with its examination of the Battle of Sedan itself. The study is such that the reader instinctively feels for the French soldiers as they fight with futile desperation under a command that has abrogated its responsibilities to the vagaries of fate. The unfolding of the battle is easily followed and related with a critical eye to the impact of local encounters on the overall battle. Both the German and French leadership is studied in some detail as to their conduct and competence with lessons to be learned for the modern day practitioner.
Fermer is an eminently readable author and his books well worth the investment. Sedan 1870, is an excellent study in hubris and hunger, doctrine and professionalism and the underlying motivation that drives troops, regardless of the quality of their leadership, to astonishing levels of self-sacrifice.
Monday, 19 June 2017
Author: Dan van der Vat
Photos/ Maps: 9/1
Following the signing of the Armistice in November 1918, many assumed that the First World War was concluded; however, in reality, the war was only on hold pending German ratification of the final peace treaty. As a condition of the Armistice, the Allied powers demanded that the German High Seas Fleet be interned in either an Allied or neutral port. The legal challenges of maintaining such a huge concentration of ships in one location precluded most neutral powers from agreeing resulting in the fleet being ordered to Scapa Flow until the cessation of negotiations. Seventy-four capital ships, stripped of their armaments, made their way to the English port to await the results of the Paris negotiations, the crews knowing that they and their ships were at the centre of intense debate and dissention between not only Germany and the Allied countries, but also between the Allies themselves.
Adding to the complexity of this situation was the fact that, because the ships were only interned but not surrendered, the Allies were not allowed under international law to place troops on board. Thus the ships continued to be crewed by German officers and men who were not allowed ashore during the period of internment. Additionally, the German Navy was beset by internal unrest and the massive spread of communism amongst the crews resulting in widespread insubordination and the abuse of officers (especially on the larger ships). These were the conditions under which the German Admiral Reuter (the German internment Commander) and his officers had to manage the fleet and prevent the British from having an excuse to board and seize the ships.
Van der Vat’s book is a study of the international environment leading up to the internment, the conditions under which the German fleet was held and, most importantly, how Reuter used his superior leadership skills to not only re-establish a degree of control over the sailors but also to guide the fleet to an honourable and noteworthy end despite the best efforts of the British. Concurrent to his description of the environment, van der Vat undertakes a detailed evaluation of the complexity of Reuter as a Commander and his sense of honour and duty. Given the paucity of information available to him and the limitations on external contact imposed by the British, it was he alone that made the decisions surrounding the conduct and ultimate fate of the fleet. Very few commanders have been given a more daunting task under more stressful conditions than Reuter.
While this book is older it nevertheless contains some extremely valuable lessons and insights applicable to the commanders of today. Issues of morale, acceptance of risk, decision making, maintenance of aim, duty and honour are displayed in bas relief as being central to retaining a degree of effectiveness under conditions of extreme adversity. A fascinating and engaging read.