Sunday, 17 September 2017

Royal Betrayal: The Great Baccarat Scandal of 1890 - Michael Scott

Title: Royal Betrayal: The Great Baccarat Scandal of 1890
Author: Michael Scott
Publisher: Endeavour Press
Year: 2017
Pages: 190

Endeavour Press is a publishing house specializing in digital or e-publishing. It makes for a very efficient way to access and enjoy their works. Royal Betrayal is a narrative relating to a scandal that, by modern standards, would appear to be of the utmost triviality but, when placed in the context of the 1890’s, threatened to undermine the very foundation of English society.

The book entails an allegation of cheating at a popular upper class parlour game called baccarat at a time where personal honour counted for everything within the closed ranks of London society. Present at the game when the assertion was suggested was the Prince of Wales, himself the subject of a series of questionable activities and public scandal in the media. The book traces the machinations of the participants through attempted cover-up, media intrigue, public trial (where the Prince of Wales himself was forced to testify) and finally the fall out.

In order to fully appreciate the magnitude of the indignity and public humiliation of this event and its potential ramifications for the Royal Household, one must understand the degree to which the public was becoming fatigued with the hypocrisy and double standards of the period between the privileged and not; also the role of the media in spreading salacious gossip about the Royals. Scott has done a commendable job at highlighting the vast gulf that existed between the classes in Victorian England.

The story is a fascinating and engaging one as much for the intrigue as for the potential consequences of the event. The narrative is somewhat awkward at points and the author has a distracting habit of injecting questions into the storyline that serve to break the flow of the tale. Nevertheless, it is gripping account that might be mistaken for a good fictional yarn if it was not credited as fact. A keen example of the shallowness, crass and petty politics of the Victorian age.  

Hitler’s Fremde Heere Ost: German Military Intelligence on the Eastern Front 1942-1945 - Magnus Pahl (translated by Derik Hammond)

This review has been submitted to the British Army Review.

Title: Hitler’s Fremde Heere Ost: German Military Intelligence on the Eastern Front 1942-1945
Author: Magnus Pahl (translated by Derik Hammond)
ISBN: 978-1-910777-08-4
Publisher: Helion
Year: 2016
Pages: 410
Photos/ Maps: 28/4

Many questions remain about the decision of Germany to attack the Soviet Union in 1941; one of the most compelling was how did the Germans underestimate so significantly the size and depth of the Soviet industrial as well as military capability? Accusatory fingers have traditionally been leveled at a failure on the part of the military intelligence organization to accurately predict this. Pahl’s book addresses this and many other questions by analyzing the German military intelligence organization from the ground up; its strengths, weaknesses, operating environment (political and operational), leadership and mandate.

There are two concurrent tracks that the author follows in his analysis. The first focuses upon the establishment and development of the intelligence service within the German military and the State and its relationship with the RHSA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt – Senior Bureau of Reich Security) and the Abwher. Compartmentalisation was one of the means by which Hitler maintained control over the Nazi state/war machine and intelligence was no exception. Thus it was that although given a mandate to undertake all forms of intelligence gathering including strategic, the FHO was never given the resources nor access to undertake the strategic level effectively; nor did the various elements of the intelligence services (state and Nazi party) cooperate willingly.

The second element that the author traces is the role of MGen Reinhard Gehlen in professionalizing and developing the effectiveness of the FHO. He commanded the organization from 1942 onwards and was instrumental in transitioning it from an ad hoc to a structured and far more proactive and engaged organization. Pahl clearly shows the role that Gehlan played in this as well as his vision of the future. Such was his impact that, as the author relates, he was able to not only maintain the integrity of his organization as the war effort collapsed, but was also able to ensure that the most effective members, gathered information and networks developed against the Soviets were able to be made available to the Americans and the German state following the surrender. That this was accomplished within weeks of the end of the war is testament to his vision, preparation and organizational skills.

This is a comprehensively researched book that paints a picture for the reader of the deep competence as well as structural and ideological weakness of the wartime German state. It contains many lessons for modern intelligence organizations relating to development, interoperability and doctrinal requirements to meet mandate. Pahl’s work delves into both the complex structure but also the doctrine related to the German intelligence services and the challenges that it faced. Within the German military there was a professional bias against the kind of clandestine work associated with spying and it was only with great difficulty was Gehlen able to recruit and establish a formal training regime to meet the needs of the military. However, as Pahl clearly shows, while Gehlen was able to very effectively provide for the operational and tactical needs of the military, he was never able to overcome the bureaucratic friction inherent in the structure of the State.

Pahl’s work provides an outstanding bibliography and notes section offering a plethora of additional reading material and sources. There is an error in the publication of the book where a map is reproduced in place of the FHO structure; however, this is minor when taken as a whole. It is also somewhat of a technical read more geared toward the ardent historian or those with an interest in the intelligence services during the war. Nevertheless, Pahl’s work definitively answers the questions of how and why the Germans had such difficulty building an in-depth appreciation of the Soviets and is well worth the time to read. 

Friday, 15 September 2017

The Sword Behind the Shield - Norbert Szamveber

This review has been submitted to Strategy and Tactics magazine.

Title: The Sword Behind the Shield
Author: Norbert Szamveber
ISBN: 978-1-909982-19-2
Publisher: Helion
Year: 2015
Pages: 491
Photos/ Maps: 0/16

In early 1945 the world’s attention was focused on the tightening vice on Berlin as the US and British drove in from the west and the Soviets from the East, relatively little attention was given to the fighting in the southeastern region around the besieged Hungarian capital of Budapest. It was in this region that, in an effort to both relieve the garrison as well as keep Hungary in the war, that the Germans (with Hungarian forces) launched a series of operations dubbed Konrad I, II, III. Ultimately they proved to be unsuccessful at relieving Budapest but not for operational or tactical reasons; it was the strategic decisions made in Berlin that ultimately undermined the ability of the Axis to succeed. While the Axis came close to succeeding, the direction that the garrison was not to attempt a breakout to meet up with the relief efforts as well as Soviet pressure in the direction of Berlin that resulting in forces being withdrawn that ultimately prevented operational success.

It is the attention that the book brings to the continued operational effectiveness of the German forces even as late as February, 1945 that stands as one of the most interesting aspects of the narrative. The German ability to continue to plan and execute combined operations effectively is underscored, as an example, by the fact that the Luftwaffe and Hungarian air force was flying up to 455 sorties per day in ground attack and air interdiction operations in support of Konrad. This at a time when it was assumed that the Luftwaffe was a spent force. Szamveber shows through his use of combat reports and other primary source material that, despite logistical as well as material shortages that the Axis were able to execute deep penetration operations against the opposing Soviet forces.

He balances his narrative very effectively by analyzing Soviet capabilities and efforts to block the German advances. The Soviet forces continue to prove themselves masters at the art of battlefield camouflage as well as the use of prepared defensive positions (anti-tanks nests had multiple overlapping weapon systems for example). The author notes that the Germans still felt themselves to be more than equal to the Russians in weaponry and operational/tactical skill sets but that there was a definite improvement in the Soviet capability at the junior and senior officer level; the mid-level officers still were a weakness. Also, it is interesting to see that the Soviets were also suffering significant challenges as the quality of their infantry was markedly lower as the war progressed; a result, no doubt, of the appalling casualties of the previous three years.

Szamveber’s work is an outstanding operational and tactical analysis of the German efforts outside of Budapest and the Soviets determination to thwart them. A detailed map section helps to visualize the operations (although a separate map book would have been better). The author has provide detailed summaries of tables of equipment and casualty rates to show the deltas under which the units were operating. This is a book for the reader with an eye for operational and tactical detail. Helion continues to provide outstanding quality in its book production. 

Dunkirk: A Miracle of Deliverance - David Boyle

Title: Dunkirk: A Miracle of Deliverance
Author: David Boyle
Publisher: Endeavour Press
Year: 2017
Digital Book

This is not a long book. Remarkably short in fact; not much over 100 pages. What it lacks in length however, it makes up for in content and quality. Given the number of books that have been written about the evacuation of Dunkirk, I was not expecting too much and was very pleasantly surprised. Boyle has focused his narrative around Vice-Admiral Bertram Home Ramsay, Commander of the Port of Dover and its environs. He was appointed to be overall Commander of the evacuation and, as such, was lead planner and executor of one of the most audacious and ambitious sea operations to date. The author has divided his story by day running from May 19th to June 3rd with a brief introduction to set the stage. The writing is tight and conveys the stress, uncertainty and determination of the participants with poignancy. This is a book about the planning and execution of the evacuation itself, not about the peripheral aspects such as the Highland Division’s and French army’s rearguard actions or the German efforts. I thoroughly enjoyed this work and would recommend it for those who wish to have a better appreciation of the level of work, coordination and luck that was required for the British (and French) to turn defeat into a viable opportunity.

Sunday, 27 August 2017

Lost Opportunities: The Battle of the Ardennes 22 August 1914 - Simon J House

This review was submitted to Soldier Magazine.

Title: Lost Opportunities: The Battle of the Ardennes 22 August 1914
Author: Simon J House
ISBN: 978-1- 911096-42-9
Publisher: Helion
Year: 2017
Pages: 252
Photos/ Maps: 36/59 (in separate included book)

The author has undertaken an outstanding analysis of the French efforts to disrupt the German Schlieffen Plan by striking at the hinge of the German advance in the Ardennes. Despite achieving both tactical and operational surprise and having heavy numerical superiority, the French failed utterly in their endeavours. His book reviews the battles themselves, the qualities and competencies of the four key commanders involved (two German and two French) at the operational level as well as the doctrinal and training policies of Germany and France in the years leading up to the war. A superb study and a publication of the highest quality.

Wenn alle Bruder schweigen - Association of the Waffen SS

Title: Wenn alle Bruder schweigen
Author: Association of the Waffen SS
ISBN: 978-3-942145-00-8
Publisher: Edition Zeitgeschichte
Year: 2014
Pages: 592
Photos/ Maps: hundreds

In the early 1970’s The Association of the Waffen SS set out to create a commemorative book for their members that memorialized their wartime experiences in photo’s. The call for contributions was met with an overwhelming response from veterans and their families. Thus it is that this book contains literally hundreds if not thousands of never before seen photos of the training and wartime experiences of all branches of the Waffen-SS. The authors have drafted an introduction that discusses the development, recruiting, training, wartime and postwar experiences of the units as well as their international recruitment; however, the vast majority of the book (98%) is given over to photographs. All text in the book is in German and English. Also included are photos and descriptions of rank, uniforms and unit emblems.

The book is a fascinating picture study of the Units and their participation in the war. Following the cessation of hostilities, the Waffen-SS presented a difficult problem for the post-war German government given its history. Members and their families were denied any kind of support from the Government and were not allowed to join the newly formed German Heer (Army); they therefore relied upon themselves and their associations for support.

The introduction to the book was drafted by SS Oberstgruppenfuehrer and Genraloberst Paul Hausser, senior General of the Waffen-SS just before his death in 1972.

The book is not political nor is it an apology, it represents a pictorial history of the some of the hardest fighting, most capable and controversial units of the German military in World War 2 and I recommend it for anyone with an interest in German Second World War history.

Thursday, 10 August 2017

Konev’s Golgotha - Mikhail Filippenkov

This review has been submitted to the Canadian Army Journal.

Title: Konev’s Golgotha
Author: Mikhail Filippenkov
ISBN: 978-1-910777-37-4
Publisher: Helion
Year: 2016
Pages: 168
Photos/ Maps: 18/8

In the period following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the archives of the former Soviet military were made available for historians to access when researching books relating to the Second World War. Unfortunately that window has now been significantly restricted again, limiting the ability of authors to provide a balanced accounting of events on the Eastern Front; this challenge was exacerbated by the systematic destruction of Soviet Unit records relating to operations where the Soviet Union suffered significant reversals. Operation Typhoon, the German drive for Moscow in October, 1941, falls into this category.

This work, which focusses upon the operational and tactical events running from 25 September to 12 October during which the pocket at Viaz’ma was closed, primarily deals with the Northern arm of this drive led by the Panzergruppe 3. The author traces the events leading to the capture of the town of Sychevka, a point north of Viaz’ma and critical to opening the road to Moscow. The author, a Russian national, does his best to provide a balance in the narrative between the Soviet forces of Konev’s Western Front and the German forces; unfortunately he is precluded from doing so due to the fact that all archives relating to Stavka (Soviet high command) and Front documents are still sealed. Thus, while he is able to draw some information from other sources, the book is mainly told from the German perspective.

Nevertheless, the approach taken by the author of a daily recitation of events does highlight some very interesting points on both sides: the quality of German command and control is evident in their ability to maintain decision making momentum over the Russian leadership; the dramatic changes in temperature and its effect upon the operational capabilities of both sides (the author refers to weather and temperature at the beginning of each day – the first wet snow fell on 7 October and the temperature fell to -40 at night by 10 October); the inability of the Germans to logistically maintain their forces and the incredible burden that this shortfall placed upon the rear services and the luftwaffe. Throughout the book the author refers to German units running short of fuel and the conscious decision by the German high command to not issue winter kit at the beginning of Typhoon due to the delay it would cause to the start date. The author also draws attention to the more effective combined arms operations of the Germans and the Russian lack of effective air reconnaissance. Finally, he acknowledges the overall superiority of German leadership and equipment while concurrently recognizing the strengths of the Russian forces in defensive operations.

Helion has maintained its high standard of quality with the production value of this work. This book is a quick and interesting read but should be read in conjunction with other authors such as David Glantz, Lev Lopukhovsky “The Viaz'ma Catastrophe, 1941: The Red Army's Disastrous Stand Against Operation Typhoon” or Svetlana Gerasimova’s “The Rzhev Slaughterhouse”. I also found that the maps provided with the text did not provide much detail on the area’s in the narrative; a shortcoming when the book is broken into daily analysis. Nevertheless, an interesting and engaging read.

Wind in the Wires - Duncan Grinnell-Milne

This review has been submitted to Airforce Magazine.

Title: Wind in the Wires
Author: Duncan Grinnell-Milne
ISBN: 978-1-90980-801-0
Publisher: Pen and Sword
Year: 2014
Pages: 238
Photos/ Maps: 4/0

Autobiographies of the early days of the Royal Flying Corps (later to be known as the Royal Air Force) never cease to impress. Perhaps it is the sense of wonder and √©lan with which these early pilots and observers recount their adventures; and that was what it was for many of these young gentlemen, an adventure. Wind in the Wire is the author’s story of his time in the RFC and his experiences as one of the early, and late, pilots of the First World War.

The first thing that strikes the reader is the prose with which the author writes. Despite not being a professional writer, he is able to turn a phrase in such a way as to convey to the reader a clear sense of the image and the humanity behind the description. His humility, joy, fears, frustrations and doubts are expressed simply and honestly, without pretense or embellishment. He is as forthright about his insecurities at learning to fly and joining an operational squadron as he is about his growing confidence and aggression in the air.

This is a book solely about his flying period; from when he reports for pilot training from his Regiment in July, 1915 to his last flight of the war in 1919. The narrative may be divided into three distinct parts: his training, his first operational squadron and being captured and finally his escape and rejoining 56 Squadron for the last months of the war. Each section alone stands as a fascinating tale of growth and adventure; taken together they represent a life’s worth of experiences compacted into three and a half short years.

The first section relates the author’s experiences in learning to fly as well as his first Squadron in France. What stands out is the quality of leadership and, during this time of the war, the lack of knowledge relating to even basic flying. Skills such as spinning, formation, bombing and gunnery were all being learned ‘on the fly’ and even the more senior pilots did not know much more than the most junior. 

The author does not dwell on the details of his incarceration period in any detail save that made numerous attempts at escape and that he turned down multiple offers by the Germans to have him transferred to neutral Holland where he would be precluded from further participation in the war but would not be held to the same degree of restriction as he was in Germany. It is very interesting to learn of the different approaches that many of the internee’s adopted as a result of their newfound circumstances and the options available such as transfer to a neutral country.

The period transitioning his escape and return to flying duty is of particular interest because it represents in fact a time capsule. During the two and a half years of his time as a POW, the entire spectrum of air combat had utterly changed. The doctrine, airframes, weapons and organizational structure of the RFC (and the Germans) was nothing like it was when he was captured. His description of endeavouring to get back into operational flying on the Western Front, his retraining and the “Rip van Winkle” effect of coming to grips with his new surroundings is gripping and absorbing. His treatment at 56 Squadron as somewhat of a carnival freak due to the fact that he was returning aircrew from a bygone era (escapees were never returned to combat roles at this time so he was doubly unique) is very interesting to follow. Even his description of the advent of bureaucracy within the RFC when compared to his first arrival in France in 1915 is both insightful, telling and humorous.

Perhaps the most poignant aspect of the book however, is the concluding pages as the war comes to an unexpected end. The author, being only 23 at this time, relates the deep sense of loss and dislocation as the Squadron and the War, representing familiarity, structure as well as profound comradeship, is systematically, and without fanfare, stripped down and disbanded. Although it is impossible to fully render the sense of isolation felt by the author and his peers (indeed if one has not experienced the intensity of war and its effect upon its combatants, mere words have difficulty translating it), G-M’s writing does convey to the reader the emotional turmoil as few books have.

Although this book relates the experiences of a war that was fought one hundred years ago, its significance reverberates even today. This book is a classic of airmanship and courage and should be read in conjunction with the likes of Cecil Lewis’ Sagittarius Rising, Arthur Gould Lee’s Open Cockpit and No Parachute as well as VM Yate’s Winged Victory. An outstanding work of literature and a must for any historian of the military arts.   

Tuesday, 25 July 2017

The Journeyman Tailor - Gerald Seymour

Title: The Journeyman Tailor
Author: Gerald Seymour
ISBN: 978-1-444-76025-5
Publisher: Hodder
Year: 1992
Pages: 352
Photographs/Maps: 0

History may be told by many different means: documentaries, historical treatise, papers and of course, historical fiction. Seymour’s novel falls into the latter category. It is considerably more difficult to effectively tell a story within the confines of a historical period because it is incumbent upon the author to not only weave an engaging tale but also to do so within the confines of the setting within which it takes place. Readers of historical fiction will be the first to point out inaccuracies and errors in the setting of the story – far more than within the storyline itself!

It is in this environment that Seymour has woven his tale of Northern Ireland during the time of the troubles. He immerses the reader into the deadly and unforgiving world of the Brits and the Provo’s: its politics, domestic toll, futility and tragedy. The storyline is deep, multi-faceted and reflects the complexities of the unfolding story through multiple lenses. The book has the intricacy of a Leon Uris tale and shares the poignancy of Trinity.

Seymour knows his topic intimately and it is reflected in the subtleties of language and description that add depth and legitimacy to his narrative. The strength of the story is reflected in the fact that the reader easily feels empathy and ire with all of the characters regardless of their political stripe. There are no hero’s in this book, only victims, and it is in that respect that this tale holds the reader and rises above the rest. It is all the more memorable for it.

Killing Patton - Bill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard

Title: Killing Patton
Author: Bill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard
ISBN: 978-0-8050-9668-2
Publisher: Henry Holt Books
Year: 2014
Pages: 352
Photographs/Maps: 30/19

This is the fourth book in the series written by the authors identifying controversial or sensationalist aspects about the deaths of their subjects; in this case Gen George S Patton. The book provides an overview of Patton’s drive through Western Europe and his clashes with many of his superiors and allies. It includes his efforts to try and have the war extended beyond the defeat of Germany into a clash with the Soviet Union.

That Patton was a dynamic, driven and controversial General is beyond doubt. That there was a conspiracy to have him killed for political reasons has not, in the opinion of this reviewer, been proven by this narrative. Indeed the portion relating to his death and the alleged plot takes up only the final few pages of the book. There are a number of books and authors that provide a much better analysis of Patton as a Commander and a General. This book, while providing a broad brush discussion of his achievements, did not provide any more than a shallow recitation of the Patton experience. It was also very suggestive of a USA bias regarding Patton’s competencies (suggesting for example that the only Axis General that was equal to Patton was Rommel – something that historians would take umbrage with when considering Manstein, Guderian, Balck, Raus or Manteuffel to name a few).

If the reader is looking for a quick surface read of the events surrounding Patton’s command experience and leadership style then this is a book for you.

Friday, 21 July 2017

The Last Punisher - Kevin Lacz

This review has been submitted to Sabretache Magazine

Title: The Last Punisher
Author: Kevin Lacz
ISBN: 978-1-5011-2724-3
Publisher: Threshold Books
Year: 2016
Pages: 320
Photographs/Maps: 30

The Last Punisher is the author’s account of his training and operational experience as a member of Seal Team Three during the Battle of Ramadi. This is not an operational analysis of the battle nor a discussion of the tactical methods used by Special Forces, more it is a memoire of the authors time with the SEALS, the impact that the men of his team had on him and his outlook as well as how he matured both as an operator as well as a man as a result of his experiences (both positive and negative). The book is a quick read and has the four key elements of special forces (specops) operations: team loyalty, elitism, aggression and plenty of dip.

A number of themes come out of the book, ones that reflect the unique nature of the specops environment:

 1.      A strong sense of team cohesion and loyalty. While there is definitely a pride in one’s country, the driving sense of supporting the men of your stick is one that permeates throughout the narrative;
2.      The unique command relationship that exists within a specops environment. The role of officers, NCO’s and soldiers is not as defined as in conventional forces. This relaxing of the rules is supposed to be offset by the level of professionalism and training of the operators. One of the challenges however, rests in the rapid expansion of specops soldiers in the last ten years. This expansion naturally runs the risk of diluting the experience and professionalism that provides the foundation of the specops ethos;
3.      The us/them approach to other members of the armed services adopted by the specops teams. In his book Lacz alludes to this when he discusses joint ops with conventional forces. It is always a challenge to remember that everyone plays a role and it is critical that there is an appreciation of what those roles bring to the mission;
4.       The key role that specops soldiers play in training Iraqi soldiers and the difficulties associated with this. Lacz discusses this at some length and does acknowledge improvement and engagement by the indigenous forces with the passage of time;
5.      The disdain with the structure and regulation of the conventional military. Again, this is a reflection of the elitism that permeates the specops culture. Balanced against performance and professionalism this may be managed but left unchecked it can lead to a sense of superiority that can easily undermine the cohesion of the larger military and serve as a negative example to line soldiers;
6.      The sense of purpose, discipline and structure that the SEALS provided for Lacz. Certainly, this is not limited to specops soldiers and it is a truism that military service can focus the efforts of capable but drifting young men and women. Lacz mentions this repeatedly and with a profound sense of gratitude; and finally
7.      Lacz writes of his ability to walk away at the end of his service period and not live a life focussed in the past. For many military members and specops soldiers, it is extremely difficult to leave the sense of comradery and purpose that reflects military life. Reintegrating into a civilian environment is challenging and unsettling for many whose bonds have been forged in combat.

There is no question that Lacz feels very strongly about his team mates, his country and the role that he played in the War on Terror. His book serves as a testament to both his team-mates and the opportunities that his country has provided him. It is also a recognition of the role that his family’s support provided him in his reintegration back into civilian life. The Last Punisher is an honest tribute his years as a SEAL and the impact that it has had on his life. Recommended.

Tuesday, 11 July 2017

Stalin’s Englishman: Guy Burgess, The Cold War and the Cambridge Spy Ring - Andrew Lownie

This review has been submitted to Review in History.

Title: Stalin’s Englishman: Guy Burgess, The Cold War and the Cambridge Spy Ring
Author: Andrew Lownie
ISBN: 978-1- 250-10099-3
Publisher: Raincoast
Year: 2015
Pages: 433
Photos/ Maps: 60/0

Few spy scandals have rocked the Western World like the notorious Cambridge Spy Scandal of the 1950’s. This book focuses on perhaps the best known of this group: Guy Burgess, his life, education, personality, motivations and the heady academic and political cauldron of the 1930’s, 40’s and 50’s UK.

The first thing that strikes the reader about this book is the degree to which the privileged society that was Burgess’ social circle both protected and tolerated behaviour that would have been completely unacceptable elsewhere. Burgess and many of his peers were open and flagrant homosexuals which was not tolerated nor legal in the UK during this period. Lownie masterfully, traces the development of Burgess’s personality through his school years and evaluates those individuals and circumstances that heavily influenced his outlook. His evaluation of Burgess’ behaviours reveals an individual of contradictions; self-absorption paired with restless brilliance and a complete domination of the id, while, concurrently, displaying a high level of loyalty to his inner circle of friends.

The book is also a fascinating study of British society and the role of connections, schools and economic well-being in garnering position and influence. Thus it was that, despite numerous questionable social traits and work results, Burgess’s connections and the loyalty of his school and work alumni to ‘one of their own’ enabled him access to the highest levels of foreign office employment and, by extension, correspondence. It was beyond the pale that anyone with breeding would betray the club. Thus it was that he was protected and shielded regardless of what became a pattern of increasingly erratic and questionable behaviour. Indeed, such was the level of institutional blindness amongst the British Foreign Office that he was actually posted to the US embassy where, although not provided a meaningful job (he was too much of a loose cannon for that) he still retained access to the highest levels of sensitive official papers and correspondence.

Another intriguing aspect to Lownie’s study is the level of loyalty that Burgess and his closest confidants held for each other. This allegiance transcended national affiliations and their mutual support and views served to strengthen their desire to undermine the strength of the corrupt West. Interestingly, while their efforts focused on the passage of information to the Soviets, for Burgess, this loyalty did not extend to an acceptance of the greatness of the Soviet Union, but a belief that British communism would prove superior to the Russian.

Burgess continued to be a study of contrasts throughout his life. Thus it was that there are continued references to his slovenly appearance and lack of personal hygiene amongst his friends and co-workers, while, concurrently, his insistence at wearing an Old Etonian tie at all times. It would appear from Lownie’s evaluation that Burgess was a deeply troubled personality, continuously seeking the next thrill while studiously avoiding the responsibilities of maturity and age. He constantly sought to be the centre of attention yet engaged in self-destructive and self-absorbed conduct. His drinking was legendary as was his flamboyant and reckless behaviour and yet he yearned for the company of others all the while alienating them with his conduct.

As Lownie describes, literally thousands of cables and messages were passed over to the Soviets during Burgess’s lifetime; so many that they were too numerous to decipher in total. Such was the flow of information that the Soviets suspected Burgess of being a double agent as they could not believe that the quantity and quality of the information that he was providing could be done without the knowledge of the British counter-intelligence people.

Burgess and his compatriots were a product of their times. His effectiveness as an operative and his ability to ultimately avoid capture and escape reads like a strange adventure novel as opposed to a real life drama. Lownie has done an outstanding job at detailing the environmental as well as psychological underpinnings of Burgess’ behaviours; additionally, he has also shed a great deal of light on the nuances of the society that facilitated this behaviour. The book is eminently readable and engaging and is strongly recommended.

Monday, 10 July 2017

Allies Are a Tiresome Lot: The British Army in Italy in the First World War - John Dillon

This review has been submitted to War History Online.

Title: Allies Are a Tiresome Lot: The British Army in Italy in the First World War
Author: John Dillon
ISBN: 978-1-910777-32-9
Publisher: Helion
Year: 2015
Pages: 224
Photos/ Maps: 15/4

As part of their Wolverhampton Military Studies program, Helion has published this interesting study of the experiences and undertakings of the British Army deployed to Italy in support of the Italian Front. Dillon has provided a comprehensive overview of the unique challenges, social environs and environmental differences facing the British and how they adapted their doctrine and regulations accordingly.

The Italians were a late comer to the war and were not held in high regard by the British command; however, a number of setbacks had, by 1917 driven the Italian government to the brink of surrender. The Allies, specifically the British, under significant pressure on the Western front due to the war weariness of the French (having recently mutinied), the recent loss of Romania and the deteriorating situation in the East with Russia, could not afford to lose the Italians without incurring a substantial threat to the entire war effort. They therefore reluctantly agreed to pull badly needed troops from the Western Front to bolster the Italians.

The Italian Front for soldiers recently engaged in the horrors of the Western Front was, in many respects, a paradise. Combat was infrequent, distances to the enemy trenches were as far as over a kilometre in many cases, the weather was mild, the ground dry and the daily routine easy; boredom became as much a challenge as the enemy. These unique challenges form the basis of Dillon’s work. He divides his narrative into distinctive sections, each stand-alone and covering such areas as medical, crime and punishment, morale and working with the Italians. He also provides, at the outset, a synopsis of the Italian war effort both in terms of the fighting as well as the relations of the Italian Government with its Allies. He closes his book with the British/Italian engagement with the Austro-Hungarians during the final months of the war and the challenges associated with the tense post war regional relations and the need to bring the soldiers home.

As this is a relatively unknown aspect of the First World War Dillon’s work is significant in the light it sheds on the unique facets of this campaign. He writes with clarity and humour, relating conditions and situations not seen on other fronts. This is a serious work however, well researched and presented. He draws on a plethora of primary source material to provide not only the strategic perspective but also the soldier’s narrative, weaving in many firsthand accounts into his writing.

Helion has maintained its high standard of quality with the production value of this work. Dillon’s book is a fascinating account of the strange world that the British soldiers, fresh from the Western Front, found themselves; the challenges that they faced and the methods that they used to adapt to this new environment.